COMPOSITION: Each Bolus contains: Copper – 0.700 gm, Cobalt 0.056 gm, Iodine 0.14 gm, Iron 1.4 gm, Manganese – 0.56 gm Selenium 0.004 gm, Zinc 0.28 gm, Vitamin E – 20 mg.
INDICATIONS: Dietary Supplement of essential micro minerals to support optimum reproductive functions, improve breeding performance, maintain healthy pregnancy and ensure normal delivery
DIRECTION FOR USE: One bolus to be fed orally every day for 20 days, or as directed by the veterinarian.
Cobalt functions as a component of vitamin B-12, which is synthesized in the rumen by bacteria. The primary deficiency symptom is loss of appetite and poor growth. Most forages in the Southeast have adequate levels of cobalt; however, it is usually added in the mineral mix at approximately 10 ppm to ensure no deficiencies. High-grain diets require more cobalt than forage-based diets, and cobalt should always be included in the mineral mix when feeding grain-based diets.
Copper is the most common micromineral deficiency in grazing cattle. Copper is an important component of many enzyme systems essential for normal growth and development. Deficiency signs include reduced fertility, depressed immunity and reduced pigmentation of hair (black hair changes to red). Dietary deficiencies can occur, but most deficiencies are caused by the consumption of antagonists, which reduces copper absorption. Copper should be supplemented as copper sulfate, tribasic copper chloride or an organic complexed form because copper oxide is very poorly absorbed.
Iodine is an essential mineral for function of the thyroid hormones that regulate energy metabolism. The first sign of iodine deficiency is goiter in newborn calves. Iodine is rarely deficient in cow herds in the Southeast. Iodine is usually supplemented as ethylenediamine dihydroidide (EDDI). The maximum legal supplementation of EDDI is 50 mg per head per day. In some instances, EDDI has been included in diets to prevent foot rot; however, the amount of EDDI required to prevent foot rot is much higher than requirements and most likely will not prevent foot rot when included at the legal maximum.
Iron is primarily required for the formation of hemoglobin. Deficiency symptoms include anemia, depressed immunity and decreased weight gains. Iron deficiency is rarely observed in grazing cattle. Iron oxide is often included in mineral mixtures, but is unavailable to the animal and serves only as a coloring agent to give the mineral a dark red color. Iron sulfate is available to the animal and should be used if iron supplementation is needed.
Manganese is required for normal reproduction, and fetal and udder development. Manganese deficiency is rare and unlikely to be a problem in grazing cattle in Georgia. Manganese oxide is the most common form of manganese used in mineral mixes. Corn-based diets are low in manganese and supplementation is necessary when feeding these diets.
Selenium can be deficient in some areas of Georgia. Selenium deficiency causes white muscle disease (similar to muscular dystrophy) in newborn calves. Selenium deficiency can also cause calves to be weak at birth and increase their susceptibility to calfhood diseases like scours. Increased rates of retained placentas and poor reproductive performance are often observed in cows with selenium deficiencies.
Selenium is generally added to mineral mixtures in the form of sodium selenite. Selenium is very toxic and should be used in a premixed form only. The FDA allows selenium to be used at a level not to exceed 0.3 ppm of the dry matter in the total diet of beef cattle. In areas where deficiencies occur, use the maximum legal level. The FDA allows up to 120 ppm to be included in a salt-mineral mixture for free-choice feeding. Selenium deficiency should not be a problem if adequate amounts of selenium are consumed in the mineral supplement. However, the concentration of selenium in the supplement and the labeled intake must not result in a total intake of more than 3 mg per day. Thus, a mineral labeled for intake of 4 ounces per head per day cannot exceed 26 ppm selenium.
Zinc is marginal to deficient in most Georgia forages. Zinc is a component of many enzymes and is important for immunity, male reproduction, and skin and hoof health. Cattle have a limited ability to store zinc and supplementation is always necessary. Zinc absorption is closely tied to copper absorption, and the zinc to copper ratio should be kept at approximately 3:1. In addition, high levels of iron can decrease zinc absorption. Absorption of zinc decreases once the ratio of iron to zinc exceeds 2:1. Some feedlots feed supplemental zinc methionine to improve hoof health and thus improve daily gains and feed efficiency.
Both selenium and Vitamin E play key complimentary but independent roles to protect cells against damage.
Vitamin E is not a single molecule, but a family of 8 related molecules called tocopherols and tocotrienols.
In animals, vitamin E deficiency has been associated with a number of problems:
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